Exposure prevention is the primary strategy for reducing both occupational and non-occupational HIV transmission.

However, following accidental contact with blood and other body fluids, exposed individuals may be at risk of HIV, Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus infection.

In addition, depending on the type of exposure, other infections, such as tetanus or STIs, or conditions, such as pregnancy, may also occur. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that the provision of post-exposure prophylaxis can reduce HIV transmission.

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is the immediate provision of preventive measures and medication following exposure to potentially infected blood or other bodily fluids to minimize the risk of acquiring an infection.

Several clinical studies have demonstrated that HIV transmission can be reduced by 81% following the immediate administration of antiretroviral agents.

The timely administration of PEP reduces the occurrence of both occupationally and non-occupationally acquired HIV infection.

Exposure that may warrant Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) include parenteral or mucous membrane exposure (sexual exposure and splashes to the eye, nose, or oral cavity) to the following body fluids:

Exposures that does not require PEP include:

Timing for PEP

PEP should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably within 2 hours after exposure.

Studies suggest that PEP may be substantially less effective if started more than 24-36 hours post-exposure and not effective after 72 hours.

Exposed persons should be re-evaluated within 72 hours after additional information about source is obtained, including serogonic status, viral load, current treatment, and resistance test results or information about factors that would modify recommendations.

Prophylaxis should be continued for four weeks. If PEP fails and the exposed persons becomes HIV infected, he/she should be referred to a CTC for proper HIV care, treatment, and support.

Follow-up of HIV exposed persons:

Follow-up is based on clinical examination and laboratory testing to determine the seroconversion and adverse effects of ARV drugs.

HIV antibody tests should be performed at 6 weeks and 12 weeks.



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