the overall risk of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV is approximately 5% to 45%. Transmission of HIV from the mother to her child accounts for over 90% of all HIV infections in children aged below 15 years.

Estimated HIV outcomes for infants born to women living with HIV. 100% of infants born to HIV-infected mothers who breastfeed.55%-80% infants will not be HIV -infected.

5-10% infants infected during pregnancy.10-15% infants infected during labor and delivery and 5-20% infants infected during breastfeeding. 20-45% infants will be infected.

Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission services in Zanzibar target women of reproductive age, pregnant and breastfeeding women, their partners, children, families and communities. The Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission program goals are to eliminate HIV transmission from mother to child or vertical HIV transmission and improve care for infected partners and their children.

Comprehensive Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission services are provided within 176 Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) clinics across all 11 districts in Zanzibar.

Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission services aim to prevent HIV infection in children, giving babies the chance to be healthy and HIV free and provide women and their families access to HIV prevention, testing, care, treatment, and support services.

Since the year 2012, Zanzibar has adopted WHO recommendation (Option B+) of providing prompt and life long ART to HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women, regardless of immunological (CD4 count) or clinical (WHO staging) status.

There is a significant reduction of new HIV infection and AIDS related mortalities observed in the country that is markedly attributed to increased access to HIV services, especially early initiation of ART among HIV positive mothers and early ART treatment initiation among children.

The comprehensive approach for eliminating Mother-To-Child Transmission in Zanzibar is based on four prongs, which include:

Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV refers to the transmission of HIV infection from HIV-infected mother to their infants that can occur during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding.

Primary Prevention of HIV among Women and their Partners

Since there is no cure for HIV infection, primary prevention of infection is the most effective means of controlling the spread of HIV and preventing Mother-To-Child Transmission. The following should be taken into consideration:

Prevention of Unintended Pregnancies among Women infected with HIV

It is every women’s or couple’s right to have children and information regarding family planning so as to make an informed choice on contraception. Therefore, contraceptive options should be provided at all service delivery points and community. Women with HIV infection and their partners should be provided with information about Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission and counselling on:

Prevention of HIV Transmission During Pregnancy, Delivery, and Breastfeeding

Transmission of HIV from a pregnant mother to her infants is the primary source of HIV infection in infants and young children. In Zanzibar, the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission program offers a range of services and interventions aimed at reducing the risk of Mother-to-Child  Transmission. These include HIV education, testing, and counselling for pregnant and breastfeeding women and their partners, ART for HIV-infected women, safer delivery practices, safer infant feeding as well as HIV-exposed infant prophylaxis, care, and HIV testing.

Both HIV-concordant and serodiscordant couples must be provided with counselling on safer reproductive options.

For Concordant (Both partners are HIV-infected) and Discordant Couples (One partner is HIV- infected):

For Discordant Couples:

Use of Antiretroviral (ARV) Medicine During Pregnancy or Breastfeeding

Prevention of Mother-To-Children Transmission sites should deliver combination ARV regimens to all identified HIV-infected pregnant and/or breastfeeding women soon after diagnosis.

The preferred first-line ARV regimen for pregnant and breastfeeding women is a fixed-dose combination of TDF 300 mg + 3TC 300mg + DTG 50mg to be taken once daily.

The alternative first-line regimen is TDF + 3TC (or FTC) + EFV 400 mg.



Please follow and like us:

One Response

Comments are closed.